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Coordinate Systems
CARTESIAN COORDINATES: 
EITHER ONE OR TWO INTERSECTING LINES WHICH DETERMINE THE POSITION OF EVERY POINT IN A PLANE. X & Y IDENTIFY THE AXIS. X IS NORMALLY HORIZONTAL AND Y IS VERTICAL. (ALSO CALLED RECTANGULAR COORDINATES.
1  2  3  4  5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1
5 4 3 2 1
-1 -2 -3 -4 -5
2 DIMENSIONAL OR 2 AXIS (FLAT PLANE)
(Y AXIS)
(X AXIS)
(2,1)
(3,2.5)
(4,3)
ORIGIN IS 0,0
X DIMENSION IS FIRST     WHEN DEFINING POINTS
IF YOU MIRROR THESE POINTS AROUND THE Y AXIS THEN THE VALUE OF X IS CHANGED TO NEGATIVE NUMBERS
3 DIMENSIONAL OR 3 AXIS (COORDINATES IN SPACE)
(Y AXIS)
(X AXIS)
(Z AXIS)
ORIGIN IS 0,0
3 2 1
-1 -2 -3
-3  -2  -1
1   2   3
          3       2   1
          -1       -2   -3
YOU COULD DETERMINE THE RECTANGULAR COORDINATES FROM POLAR COORDINATES BY USING TRIGONOMETRY TO WORK OUT THE PROBLEM.
WHERE AN ANGLE & DISTANCE (RADIUS) DETERMINES THE POSITION OF A POINT
sin(30) x 1.500 = Y VALUE cos(30) x 1.500 = X VALUE
POLAR COORDINATE
(Y AXIS)
(X AXIS)
1.500
30°
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